Cyber security

20 Cybersecurity Interview Questions of 2022

cybersecurity interview questions

Cyber security is the only area of IT that has yet to experience a downturn. With rising demand comes more competition, and you must be among the best to land a position in Cybersecurity. While having the necessary Cybersecurity skills is half the battle won, getting past the cybersecurity interview questions is a completely different scenario. We’ve put together this collection of the best Cyber Security interview questions and answers to assist you to nail the interview.

Certification is important, and so are skills! This Cyber Security Course is a great place to start.

Cybersecurity interview questions for Specialists

Let’s begin with cybersecurity interview questions

1. Describe cryptography and describe how it works.

Cryptography is the practice and study of ways for securing information and communication, to protect data from third parties who aren’t supposed to have access to it.

2. What is the difference between an intrusion detection system (IDS) and an intrusion prevention system (IPS)?

An intrusion Detection System (IDS) is an intrusion detection system that just detects intrusions, leaving the administrator to deal with prevention. An IPS, or Incursion Prevention System, on the other hand, detects the intrusion and takes action to stop it.

3. Describe the CIA triad

Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) are acronyms meaning Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. The CIA is a paradigm for guiding policies in the field of information security. It is one of the most widely utilized organizational models.


Only authorized personnel should have access to and read the material. Unauthorized personnel should not have access to it. The data should be strongly encrypted in case someone employs hacking to gain access to it, such that it is not readable or understood even if it is accessed.


Verifying that the data has not been tampered with by an unauthorized party. Data integrity ensures that unauthorized personnel do not corrupt or modify data. If an authorized individual or system attempts to edit data and is unsuccessful, the data should be reverted and not corrupted.


The user should have access to the data anytime they need it. Hardware maintenance, regular upgrades, data backups and recovery, and network bottlenecks should all be addressed.

4. What is the difference between encryption and hashing?

To turn readable data into an unreadable format, both encryption and hashing are utilized. The distinction between encrypted and hashed data is that encrypted data can be decrypted and converted back to original data, but hashed data cannot.

5. Describe a firewall and explain why one is needed.

A firewall is a type of network security device that monitors and controls network traffic at the system or perimeter level. Firewalls are used to protect a computer or network from viruses, worms, malware, and other dangerous software. Also firewalls can be used to filter material and prohibit remote access.

6. How do VA and PT differ from one other?

The process of identifying faults in a target is known as vulnerability assessment. The organization recognizes that its system/network has defects or vulnerabilities and wishes to identify and prioritize these flaws for correction.

The process of detecting vulnerabilities on a target is known as penetration testing. In this situation, the business would have put in place all of the security measures they could think of and would want to see if their system/network could be hacked in any other way.

7. What is the meaning of a three-way handshake?

TCP/IP networks use three-way handshakes to establish connections between a client and a host. The client and server exchange packets in three steps, which is why it’s called a three-way handshake. The following are the three steps:

  • The client sends an SYN(Synchronize) message to the server to see if it is up and running and if it has any open ports.
  • If the server has open ports, it sends an SYN-ACK message to the client.
  • The client acknowledges this by sending the server an ACK(Acknowledgement) packet.

8. What are the many types of response codes that a web application can send?

1xx — Responses that provide information

2xx – Achievement

3xx – Rerouting

4xx — Error on the client’s side

5xx — Error on the server

Let’s have a look at some of the other Cybersecurity Interview Questions now.

9. What exactly is a traceroute? What is the purpose of it?

Traceroute is a utility that displays a packet’s journey. It lists all of the destinations (mainly routers) that the packet passes through. When a packet fails to reach its intended destination, this is commonly used. To find the point of failure, use Traceroute to see where the connection stops or breaks.

10. HIDS and NIDS are two different systems, how do they differ?

HIDS (Host Intrusion Detection System) and NIDS (Network Intrusion Detection System) are both Intrusion Detection Systems that are used to identify intrusions. The only distinction is that HIDS is configured for a specific host or device. It keeps track of a device’s traffic as well as any unusual system activity. NIDS, on the other hand, is network-based. It keeps track of the network’s traffic from all devices.

11. What is the procedure for setting up a firewall?

  • The following are the steps to set up a firewall:
  • Change the default username and password for a firewall device.
  • Remote administration: Turn off the feature of remote administration.
  • Configure appropriate port forwarding for specific programs to function properly, such as a web server or an FTP server.
  • DHCP server: Unless the firewall’s DHCP is disabled, installing a firewall on a network with an existing DHCP server will result in a conflict.
  • Logging: To fix firewall problems or potential assaults, make sure logging is turned on and that you know how to read logs.
  • Policies: You should have robust security policies in place, and the firewall should be set to enforce them.

12. Explain SSL (Secure Socket Layer) Encryption.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a security protocol that establishes encrypted communications between a Web server and a browser. This is used to protect the information in online transactions and maintain data privacy. The following are the steps for creating an SSL connection:

  • A browser tries to connect to an SSL-protected web server.
  • A copy of the browser’s SSL certificate is sent to the browser.
  • The browser determines whether or not the SSL certificate is valid. If it is, the browser sends a message to the webserver requesting that an encrypted connection be established.
  • To begin an SSL encrypted connection, the webserver sends an acknowledgment.
  • Between the browser and the web server, SSL encrypted communication takes place.

13. What security measures will you use to protect a server?

To prevent data from illegal interception, secure servers use the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol for data encryption and decryption.

Here are four easy measures to protect your server:

Step 1: Make sure your root and administrative accounts have strong passwords.

Step 2: After that, you’ll need to add additional users to your system. These are the people who will be in charge of the system.

Step 3: Disable remote access for the root/administrator accounts by default.

Step 4: Now it’s time to set up your remote access firewall rules.

14. Explanation of Data Breach

The purposeful or unintentional transportation of data from within an organization to an external, unauthorized destination is known as data leakage. It occurs when confidential information is unintentionally disclosed to a third party. And based on how it occurs, data leaking can be divided into three categories:

Accidental Breach: An entity unintentionally sends data to an unauthorized person due to a fault or mishap.

Intentional Breach: An authorized entity sends data to an unauthorized entity on purpose.

System Hack: Hacking tactics are utilized to trigger data leaks in the system.

DLP (Data Leakage Prevention) Tools are tools, software, and methods that can be used to prevent data leakage.

15. What are some of the most common forms of cybercrime?

The following are some prevalent cyberattacks that could harm your computer.

  • Malware
  • Phishing
  • Attacks on Passwords
  • DDoS
  • The Man in the Middle
  • Downloads on Demand
  • Malvertising
  • Rogue software

16. Why is Brute Force Attacks so effective? What can you do to avoid it?

Brute Force is a method of determining the correct credentials by repeatedly trying all conceivable permutations and combinations of credentials. Most brute force attacks are automated, with the tool/software attempting to log in using a set of credentials. Brute Force attacks can be avoided in a variety of ways. Here are a few examples:

Password Length: You can specify a minimum password length. Longer passwords are harder to remember.

Password Complexity: Brute-force assaults are made more difficult by including multiple formats of characters in the password. Using alpha-numeric passwords with special characters, upper and lower case letters, and upper and lower case numbers increases password complexity, making it more difficult to hack.

Login Attempts Limitation: Limit the number of failed login attempts. You can, for example, specify a limit of three login failures. When a user fails to log in three times in a row, either prevent them from logging in for some time or give them an email or an OTP to use to log in the next time. Also Limiting login attempts will break the brute force process because it is an automated operation.

17. Why do ports need to be scanned and how does it work?

The technique of port scanning is used to identify open ports and services on a host. Also, Hackers employ port scanning to look for information that can be used to exploit security flaws. Administrators use Port Scanning to check the network’s security policies. The following are some of the most prevalent port scanning techniques:

  • Scan for Ping
  • Half-Open TCP
  • Connect with TCP
  • UDP
  • Scanning in the Dark

18. What are the OSI model’s various layers?

This is one of the most asked cybersecurity interview questions. A reference model for how apps communicate over a network is the OSI model. And An OSI reference is a set of guidelines for vendors and developers to follow for digital communication goods and software applications to work together.

The OSI layers are as follows:


19. What is a virtual private network (VPN)?

This question will appear in almost all Cybersecurity Interview Questions. Virtual private networks provide a private connection over the internet. It’s used to establish a secure, encrypted connection. When you use a VPN, your data is transported from your client to a point in the VPN where it is encrypted before being delivered over the internet to another location. The data is decrypted and delivered to the server at this stage. When the server sends a response, it is encrypted and transferred to another VPN point to be decoded. Finally, the client receives the decrypted data. 

20. What is a Botnet, exactly?

A botnet is a collection of machines linked to the internet, each of which runs one or more bots. Bots and malicious programs were utilized to hack a victim’s device. Botnets can be used to steal data, send spam, and launch a distributed denial-of-service attack.

Do you wish to work in the field of cybersecurity?

There are a lot of opportunities in cybersecurity, and KloudLearn has several wonderful tools to help you get started in this ever-changing and hard area by helping you improve your existing abilities and learn new ones.

Our free cybersecurity training program will provide you with all of the skills you’ll need to succeed in this sector. Take advantage of the chance to learn from industry professionals and international practitioners. Sign up for our free course today to improve your skills.


Is cyber security a difficult task?

Training cybersecurity can be difficult, but it is not really if you're interested in tech. Show an interest in the technologies you're working with, and you may find that tough skills become more feasible.

Is there a lot of math involved in cybersecurity?

The majority of entry-level and mid-level cybersecurity positions, such as cybersecurity analyst, do not require a lot of math. There are a lot of graphs and data analysis, but the math required isn't too difficult. You can succeed if you can handle basic programming and solving problems.

Is coding required for cybersecurity?

While programming skills are not required for many entry-level cybersecurity positions, they are considered a significant skill for some semi and topmost cybersecurity positions.

What cybersecurity skills do I require?

Cybersecurity necessarily requires technical expertise. A working knowledge of how operating systems are created and maintained. A firm understanding of computer networking and cloud computing fundamentals. Being able to design and evaluate network architecture is a crucial skill.

What is the most crucial aspect of cyber security?

The most important elements for data security are data protection using cryptographic controls for Data at Rest and Data in Transit, an effective Access Control system, and effective monitoring and logging of data access.


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